Azerbaijan is among the 27 high multidrug-resistant (MDR) TB burden countries in the world. The context for TB control is changing as Azerbaijan is fundamentally reforming its health system. The majority of both primary health care facilities and hospitals have been privatized, and insurance coverage has expanded. In 2012, most TB dispensaries were absorbed into private general medical facilities.
One of the major challenges remains MDR-TB and TB/HIV co-infection. TB and HIV control activities are not very well integrated. Analysis of the 2009 cohort of MDR-TB patients showed a high default rate. Azerbaijan has implemented diagnostics for rapid detection of TB and drug resistance, enabling Azerbaijan to identify 63% of the estimated MDR-TB cases among notified TB cases in 2011. However, this suggests that about one third of the MDR-TB cases were not detected and, hence, continues to transmit this drug resistant form of disease. Currently a number of essential TB control functions are largely depending on The Global Fund project and the United States Agency for International Development (USAID) TB Prevention Project, which both end in 2015, after which country has to sustain TB control through domestic resources.